Development of a Racial and Ethnic Identity Scale for African American Adolescents: The Survey of Black Life
The authors report the development of a racial/ethnicity identity (REI) measure for African American adolescents. The Adolescent Survey of Black Life (ASBL) was administered to two samples, comprising 286 and 60 respondents, respectively. Three factors were identified: pro-Black (7 items), anti-White (4 items), and racism awareness (5 items). Scores on the pro-Black factor were significantly related to anti-drug attitudes, and in Sample 1, they were also significantly related to positive school attitudes and behaviors, problem behaviors (negatively), and self-esteem. Anti-White scores in Sample 2 were significantly related, in the negative direction, with positive school attitudes and behaviors and prosocial activities, as well as positively related with drug use. Recognition of racism was significantly associated with positive school attitudes, problem behaviors, and drug use in Sample 1. Findings should be tempered by the cross-sectional design, small sample size, and the inconsistency and magnitude of the observed correlations. Initial psychometric data suggest construct validity of the ASBL, and further development of the instrument may be warranted.